The 33rd MARATHON DES SABLES is organised by ATLANTIDE ORGANISATION Internationale and will take place from 06 to 16 April 2018 in Southern Morocco. This 33rd annual event will take place under the aegis of the MOROCCAN MINISTRY OF TOURISM and will bring together around 1,300 French and participants.
The 33rd MARATHON DES SABLES is a foot race, open to runners and walkers, with several stages, free style, and with food self-sufficiency, over a distance of about 250km. Each participant must carry his/her own backpack containing food, sleeping gear and other equipment.
The 33rd MARATHON DES SABLES will be administered according to the general race regulations and their amendments (road book,…), to which all participants agree when they register.
Anyone meeting the following conditions may be accepted: Over 18, any citizenship. Competitors must hold a medical certificate issued by the organisation stating their ability to participate and a resting ECG report.
Teenagers over 16 may participate in the 33rd MARATHON DES SABLES subject to prior consent from ATLANTIDE ORGANISATION Internationale and written permission from a parent or guardian. They will have to meet the same requirements as adults.
CATEGORY A : INDIVIDUAL
CATEGORY B : TEAM PARTICIPANT
Every entrant will be ranked. In addition to the general ranking, there will be placing for :
• veteran M1 (aged 40 to 49),
• veteran M2 (aged 50 to 59),
• veteran M3 (aged 60 to 69),
• veteran M4 (aged 70 to 79),
• veteran W1 (aged 40 to 49),
• veteran W2 (aged 50 to 59),
• veteran W3 (aged 60 to 69),
• veteran W4 (aged 70 to 79).
Classification is based on year of birth.
CATEGORY B : TEAM PARTICIPANT
A team is made up of at least three runners. To remain in the race, all three members of the team must complete the race. However each member is recorded as an individual in the general ranking.
06 April: Departure for Morocco*, arrival, transfer bivouac.
07 April: Technical, administrative and medical formalities.
08 to 13 April: Timed stages with food self-sufficiency.
14 April: Timed, “Solidarity” stage with food self-sufficiency
15 April: Free day
16 April: Return to France.*
*Competitors not using the Paris flight may have to arrive a day earlier and return a day later depending on flight connections.
ATLANTIDE ORGANISATION Internationale reserves the right to modify:• the regulations of the 33rd MARATHON DES SABLES,
• the aspect of the course (see ART. 21),
• the place and destination in case of forces beyond our control: weather, cataclysm, armed conflict, invasion in any form, lock-out…
These will take place on 07 April 2018.
Participants must present themselves to the race administrators and medical team responsible for carrying out these verifications. He or she must imperatively have fulfilled his or her technical, administrative and medical obligations (see ART. 24, 25, 27 & 28) before departure. At the control point, an exact list of each participant’s equipment must be established (i.e., compulsory items, personal belongings, food and calorific value, etc.). The race stewards are authorised at any time to check and supervise the participants’ backpacks. Individual items of the participant’s equipment as referred to in the above list is strictly personal. Any items missing from the list, whether thrown away, lost or stolen, shall be penalised. All competitors are responsible for their own equipment and they must therefore inform the organisation of any missing item, failing which penalities could be levied (see ART. 27 and 28). Any found objects that remain unclaimed after 24 hours shall be disposed of, except for telephones, cameras and batteries. Each competitor is responsible for his/her own equipment.
During the race, none of the items in your backpack will be looked after by the organisation.
During the administrative and technical registration, the organisation will provide each participant with:
• 2 x Reace numbers bearing a number, approx. 18 cm x 16 cm
– One for upper part of the chest
– One for the back, to be attached to the backpack,
• A check-in card
• WAA ChronoTag (3)
• A SPOT tracker /distress beacon
The race numbers marks must be worn by the participants throughout the race and positioned according to the organisation’s indications, failing which penalties will be issued. The race stewards may carry out checks at any time. It is formally forbidden to cover the organization’s race numbers with any other lettering. Each participant must ensure his/her ID marking arr clear, entirely visible, in good condition and in the proper place, under pain of penalty (see ART. 27 and 28).The organisation will provide competitors with spare tags in case of damage or loss. The distress beacon must be handed in at the end of the race. The loss of the distress beacon will incur a fine of 100 euro (see ART. 27 and 28).
Each participant agrees to adhere strictly to this rule, subject to serious penalty in the case of violation (see ART. 27 and 28).
In addition to official ID markings, participants may use other available clothing space for individual sponsors e.g. T-shirts (apart from the chest area exclusively reserved for race number) shorts, socks, caps, backpacks, etc. However, the organisation reserves the right to prohibit sponsorship considered to be oversized or in direct competition with the organisation’s partners or for any other reasons and which the organisation does not have to justify.
The upper part of the chest area is reserved exclusively by the organisation for positioning your race number. The race organisers will be very strict about where your ID is placed. Therefore, think carefully about where to position your advertising and publicity on your tee-shirts and backpacks.
Stage starts are grouped, except for:
- – The “non-stop” stage, where the leaders of the general and women’s classifications will start around 3 hours after the 1st start.
- – The “marathon” stage, where the last on the list will be the first to leave.
Each competitor must attend a briefing session with the race Director before the stage starts. Participants must imperatively start at the time indicated by the organisation, subject to penalties (see ART. 28).
Before the start of each stage, the water distribution point is a compulsory check-point. (see ART. 13 and 16).
Stage to be covered in a maximum authorised time of 10 hours. The marathon stage must take a maximum of 12 hours.
Checkpoint (CP) closing times are indicated in the road book. Anyone who has not reached a checkpoint before the deadline will be disqualified (see ART. 27 & 28).
The Charity Stage is obligatory and counts as part of MDS. Any competitor who does not participate or gives up this stage will be disqualified from MDS. Any penalties received shall be included in the general race ranking. A finisher medal is awarded at the end of this stage.
Approx. 80 km stage to be held partly during the night and within a maximum authorised time of 34 hours.
CP closing times are indicated in the road book. Anyone who has not reached a checkpoint before the deadline will be disqualified (see ART. 27 & 28).
From CP4 onwards, competitors may set up bivouac where they like as long as they are on the course route and clearly visible. Participants will be informed of the latest departure time from CP4.
Your headlamp must be turned on from 7 p.m.
The water distribution points at both the start and the finish line of each day’s stage are compulsory check-points. Check-points are located throughout the course of each stage of the race. There are two to six check points depending on the length of the race and each competitor must go through them, if not penalties will be applied (see Art 27 and 28). This allows the race officials to record times and distribute water (see ART.16).
Medical assistance will be available at each check-point.
The closing times for each checkpoint will be indicated in the road book.
An official time-keeper will take down the daily order of arrival for each competitor.
Obligatory checkpoints: water distribution and card punching.
The bivouacs will be pitched each day on previously chosen sites transformed into camping grounds for the competitors; Numbered, 8-man tents attributed by country of residence. Failure to adhere to these numbers will incur a penalty (see Art. 27 and 28).
Competitors may use their free time to prepare for the night and get medical care, if necessary.
Each competitor’s time is recorded in hours, minutes and seconds.
CATEGORY A: INDIVIDUAL
The daily race ranking is calculated by adding the time taken to run that stage of the race plus penalties, if applicable.
CATEGORY B: TEAM
Each team’s time will correspond to the average time taken by its members, including penalties.
CATEGORY A and B:
General ranking is calculated by adding together times for each stage of the race. Any claims must be made in writing at the race and handed over to the ranking marshals (see Art. 27).
The organisation takes charge of supplying water to each competitor.
Water is typically distributed as follows:
Liaison stage: 10.5 litres per person per day:
• 1.5 litre before the start each morning,
• 2 or 3 x 1.5 litre during the race, at check points,
• 4.5 litres at arrival post.
Marathon stage: 12 litres per person per day :
• 1.5 litre before the start in the morning,
• 1.5 litre at check-points 1 and 3,
• 3 litres at check-point 2,
• 4.5 litres at arrival post.
Non-stop stage: 22.5 litres per person over 2 days :
• 1.5 litre before the start of the race in the morning,
• 1.5 litre at check-points 1, 3, 6,
• 1.5 or 3 litres at check-points 2, 4 and 5,
• 4.5 litres at arrival post,
• 4.5 litres at the bivouac.
Water will be distributed on the competitor’s bivouac each morning before the start of the race. Distribution times will be posted up on the bivouac the night before (see Art. 13, 27 and 28). Clipping of the water card is obligatory and is the competitor’s sole responsibility. Each participant must manage his/her daily water intake as and when water is distributed and cannot obtain further supplies at any other time.
Penalties will be given to competitors who abandon empty water containers along the route. Facilities for handing in empty containers will be available at check points (see ART. 27 and 28).
Never leave without water. Should you get lost in the desert, water reserves could be vital.
A specially chosen medical team, specialising in sports and tropical medicine will be present throughout the race with the use of assistance vehicles. It will be posted at check points and at the finish line each day and will ensure that any participants who are suffering from physical or mental exhaustion are brought back to the base camp. The medical team is allowed to remove race numbers and to eliminate any participant they feel physically unfit to continue the race and/or having received vital medical care. (See ART.27 and 28).
In no circumstances (and at the risk of having to pay the search costs involved) must any competitor leave the race without informing the organisation and signing an official discharge provided by AOI. If a competitor abandons the race, he/she must notify the organisation as soon as possible and give his/her identification marks to one of the course stewards.
A team which has more than 3 members and where one member drops out or is disqualified will result in the team receiving a one-hour penalty (see Articles 27 and 28).
In the case of a serious physical condition, repatriation may be arranged immediately.
If the competitor’s physical condition is satisfactory, he or she shall be taken to Ouarzazate within 48 hours maximum, after signing an official disclaimer supplied by AOI. While awaiting transferral to Ouarzazate, the competitor shall automatically be taken care of and must hand over his or her food to the organisation.
In Ouarzazate, the organisation will give the competitor his or her personal bag and provide assistance to reserve a hotel if necessary. Accomodation and food shall be paid for by the competitor.
A doctor will be available for consultations and referral to hospital or a nurse for treatment.
The organisation reminds all participants that the 33rd MARATHON DES SABLES is a race through the Sahara where climatic and ground conditions can be extreme. Any outside assistance is strictly prohibited. Replenishment during the race shall incur a minimum penalty of 3 hours and possibly exclusion. If a competitor goes far off the race route, necessitating a lengthy search, he or she will be excluded from the race and pay a € 200 fine (see ART. 27 and 28).
An insurance policy covering medical evacuation is arranged by the organisation for all entrants.
The policy covers the following:
• evacuation on medical grounds and corpse repatriation in the event of death: real costs for all competitors to return to Morocco, mainland France, European Union member countries and Switzerland. Competitors residing in countries not included in the above list will bear the full costs of returning to home countries from the place of repatriation. They are therefore strongly advised to take out personal insurance.
• necessary fees required for transport in case of death: 1,525 euro
• payment of medical expenses in Morocco for non-residents only: 15,000 euro.
All competitors take part in the full knowledge of the risks that may be incurred in this kind of competition. Since competitors participate of their own free will, the organisation is not responsible for any incident or accident.
In accordance with the 1984 law on sport, the organizer is obliged to advise participants to take out their own accident and death insurance.
Average temperature in March/April :
• daytime 30° C,
• night time 14° C.
The route (approx. 250 kms) covers a wide variety of terrain. In the event of sand storm lowering visibility to zero, competitors must stop in their tracks and wait for instructions by the organizers.
The participants in the 33rd MARATHON DES SABLES must follow the route as marked by the organisers, failing which penalties may be applied according to the particular stage. For liaison stages, the course will be marked approximately every 500 metres. There are several natural landmarks that will serve as additional points of reference.
Special NON-STOP stage and MARATHON: light beacons from CP3 to the finish line.
A road book will be compiled from the preparatory reconnaissance missions. The exact course will remain secret and will only be revealed at the time of distributing the road books on 06 April. It will include various items of interest on the stages, support, etc. Competitors shall be penalised if they do not have their roadbook during the race. (see ART. 28).
Each morning a briefing will be held relating to that day’s stage by the organisers in French and in English.
All of the obligatory equipment and personal belongings for each competitor (food, survival equipment and Marathon kit, waist pouch…) should weigh between 6.5 kg and 15 kg. This minimum/maximum weight does not include your daily water supply. Each participant will have to fulfil the above obligations during the administrative and technical checks in Morocco (see ART. 27 and 28).
Each entrant must provide his/her own food from 08 to 14 April inclusive.
He/she must select the type of food best suited to his/her personal needs, health, weather conditions, weight and backpack conditions. We remind you that airlines strictly forbid the carrying of gas (for cooking) on board ,either as hand luggage or otherwise. Each competitor must have 14 000 k/calories, that is to say a minimum of 2,000 k/calories per day, otherwise he/she will be penalised (see ART. 27 and 28). Any food out of its original packaging must be marke, legibly, with all the nutrition label shown on the product concerned.
Gas stoves are strictly forbidden.
• Backpack MDS or equivalent
• Sleeping bag,
• Head torch and a complete set of spare batteries,
• 10 safety pins,
• Compass, with 1° or 2° precision,
• A whistle,
• Knife with metal blade,
• Topical disinfectant,
• Anti-venom pump,
• A signalling mirror,
• One aluminium survival sheet,
• One tube of sun cream,
• 200 euro or equivalent US dollar or dirham
• Passport or for Moroccan residents, identity card
• Original medical certificate provided by AOI, filled in and signed by the doctor
• Original ECG and its tracing at rest
It is supplied by the organisation and will include the following:
• a road-book issued on 06 April,
• Identification marks (see ART.8),
• Salt tablets,
Sachets for the toilets
This Marathon kit will be issued during the technical and administrative checks in Morocco. :
A luminous stick will be issued at CP3 of the non-stop stage. The distress beacon must be given back to the organisation at the finish line.
ART. 25 : REGISTRATION, ENTRY FEES AND ADMINISTRATIVE OBLIGATIONS
Please refer to the UK and Ireland Terms and Conditions of entry for details regarding payments and documents. You will be contacted via email well in advance of payments/documents becoming due, with full details of what is required and when.
PREVENTIVE AND RESEARCH ACTIONS CONCERNING HEALTH POLICY
The organisation has decided to set up preventive and research actions concerning health policy during the MARATHON DES SABLES. These actions are not designed to be substitutes for national and/or international regulations concerning anti- doping, but aim to strengthen the medical supervision that the organisation wishes for. They are managed jointly by the ITRA (International Trail Running Association), the Ultra Trail World Tour (UTWT) and the association Athletes For Transparency (AFT). These actions are led by a Medical Commission consisting of doctors who can take advice from the experts of their choice and are, in particular, asked to give consultative advice to the race jury on the medical state of participants.
Each runner is free to:
1. Declare the following information to the medical commission :
– any medical history and/or pathology in particular those which may increase risk during the sport
– the regular use of treatments and medicines during the 15 days prior to the start of the race
– all requests for or use of medicines subject to a Therapeutic Usage Exemption (TUE).
The declaration of this information to the medical commission must be made through each runner’s ITRA health page which each runner can create free of charge on the ITRA website: www.itra.run (To open an account is free of charge and is necessary in order to access the health page).
The medical information declared on the pages is accessible only to the Medical Commission and the organisation’s own medical team.
Each runner agrees to:
2. Accept to submit any urine, and/or blood, and/or capillary, and/or saliva samples and the associated analyses requested by the Organisation’s Medical Commission, on the understanding that the costs for the sampling and analyses are covered, directly, by the Organisation.
3. To accept to answer any request that the Medical commission may make based on information that they have collected, in order to discuss their ability or not to participate in the race for which they are registered. As a result of the meeting, the Medical Counsel may suggest that the race Jury exclude the runner from the race.
4. Accept the use of data concerning the results of research, while knowing that the data used will be strictly anonymous. According to the data protection act, the runner will have a right of access, rectification and opposition to the data concerning them. The Organisation’s Medical Commission will be the entity through whom the runner can exercise this right.
Please refer to the UK and Ireland Terms and Conditions of entry for details of the applicable cancellation procedure and charges
Important: The Organiser and RunUltra Ltd strongly recommend that each competitor takes out personal cancellation insurance. There are several reputable insurers, please ensure that yo chose a policy best suited to your requirements .
Any competitor whose information is incomplete in the online applications process on 30/09/2017 will incur a 30-minute penalty (ser ART. 28). AOI allows a maximum of 30 days to complete the online administration details. After 30/10/2017, the application of competitors who have still not provided complete information will be cancelled (see ART.26, ART.28)
Technical and administrative checks
If a participant is more than 30 minutes late for these checks on 07 April he/she will be penalised by the length of time of his/her lateness.
If a participant does not submit proof of having all his/her mandatory equipment, he/she will be disqualified.
Failure to respect the minimum or maximum weight of equipment will also result in a penalty (see ART. 28).
At the medical check-ups in Morocco on 7 April 2018, competitors must present the organization’s medical certificate and his or her resting electrocardiogram with tracing. These 2 documents must be signed and dated at least 30 days before the start of the race, i.e. after 6 March 2018. Competitors who do not fulfil this obligation shall not be able to start the race. However, such competitors shall be able to participate after an examination by the organization’s doctors and subject to their approval. Each of these documents can be produced in the bivouac for a fixed fine of 200 euro to be paid in cash on the spot. A penalty of one hour per missing document shall be applied (see ART. 28).
List of personal belongings
Competitors abandoning one or several elements of his or her personal equipment should inform a bivouac official.
Competitors who cannot justify at any check point the absence of any personal item will be severely penalized (see ART. 28).
A total for the race of 14 000 k/calories worth of food is compulsory . When spot-checks are made, any competitor unable to present and justify the minimum 2000 k/calories per day during the race will receive a 2 hour penalty (see ART. 28).
In the event of loss or damage to race numbers, race officials must be informed immediately, or a penalty will be applied.
Competitors failing to wear their race numbers may risk disqualification from the race (see ART. 8, 9 and 28).
The loss of the SPOT distress beacon will incur a fine of 100 euro (see ART. 28).
Tampering with race numbers will result in the participant’s immediate disqualification (see ART. 28).
Start of race
Competitors who fail to be present at the start line at the beginning of each stage begins will be penalised by the time equivalent to the delay.
Exceeding 30 minutes, the competitor will be disqualified and his/her gs will be handed over to the steward (see ART. 28).
At the non-stop stage, if the start order is not respected, a three-hour penalty will be given.
Check posts / Time-checking
At each stage start line, finish line, and on the route, time-checking is obligatory at the check posts and is the responsibility of the competitor.
If a competitor arrives up to 30 minutes late at the check-point before the start he/she will receive a 30 minute penalty. If more than 30 minutes late, the competitor will no longer be registered and will be penalised for failure to check-in. The first infraction will result in a one hour penalty, the second infraction a two hour penalty and the third time elimination from the race (see ART. 28).
Maximum authorised time
Any competitor who exceeds the maximum authorised time for each stage shall be disqualified and must return their race nimber to the steward. Any competitor who arrives at a CP after the deadline shall be disqualified (see ART. 28).
Distress beacon / Torch / Luminous signal sticks / Number bibs
The following penalties apply during the stages (see ART. 28):
• 1 hour for the use of a distress beacon without a valid reason,
• 30 minutes for a headlamp not turned on after 7 pm,
• 30 minutes for lack of luminous signal sticks after 7 pm.
• 30 minutes for number bibs not visible.
Withdrawal / Elimination
Any participant withdrawing from the race must notify an organisation official as soon as possible.
Withdrawal by one team member in a team of more than 3 members will result in a one hour penalty for that team, provided of course that at least 3 people remain in the race (see ART. 28).
Any use of illicit drugs by a participant noted by the medical team will result in the elimination of that person from the race (see ART. 28).
Land and medical assistance
Any form of outside assistance is strictly forbidden.
Fraudulent outside assistance supplying food or drink to a competitor shall incur a penalty ranging from three hours to expulsion from the race. Any long searches brought about by excessive deviation from the route will lead to exclusion from the race and a € 200 fine (see ART. 28).
The use of transportation, either with 2 or 4 wheels will result in elimination from the race. The receiving of extra water in particular instances (due to lack, loss or leaking bottle), and with the agreement of the race stewards or on the advice of the medical team, will result in a 30 minute penalty the first time, one hour the second time and disqualification from the race on the third occasion.
Vital medical assistance (i.e. rehydration, plaster cast etc.) will result in a two hour penalty the first time, and elimination from the race on the second occasion.
Any inappropriate or harmful behaviour may incur serious penalties (see ART. 28).
Mobile phones must not be used in the bivouac or at the CPs (see ART. 28).
Water and environment
Any water container found on the race route will incur a penalty (see ART. 28).
The throwing away of any food packaging or other items on the race route is strictly forbidden and will be penalized (see ART. 28).
Tents are numbered and attributed by country of residence.
Competitors must, without fail, stay in the tents reserved for them. Failure to adhere to the numbers attributed will incur a penalty (see ART. 28).
All complaints from competitors must be addressed to the Race Director in writing.
- During the race
It should be handed over to the Head of the Competitors’ bivouac. Replies will be issued within 48 hours.
- After the race
On 15 April, at Ouarzazate, to the competitors information point (see road-book)
After 15 April and until 30 April, to AOI – BP 20098 – 10002 TROYES Cedex – FRANCE. – Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
REASON FOR PENALTY
|Online applications process incomplete on 30/09/2017||
|Online applications process incomplete on 31/10/2017||
|More than 30 minutes delay at admin/tech check in||
EQUAL TO LATENESS
|Non submission of AOI medical certificate and/or ecg report at rest||
X – IF MEDICAL REFUSAL
€ 200 FINE + 1H PER DOCUMENT
|No MDS backpack or equivalent||
|No sleeping bag, compass with 1° or 2° precision||
|Non submission distress flare, road book, salt tablet 2 000 calories/day, aluminium survival sheet||
|Non submission 10 safety pins, knife with metal blade, whistle, antiseptic, mirror, aspivenom pump, headlamp + batteries, check-in card, lighter, sun cream, 200 €||
|Bag weight not respected||
|Piece of personal equipment missing||
|No race number||
2nd / X
1st / WARNING
|Failure to respect race numbers and their positioning||
1st / WARNING
|Tampering with race numbers||
|Lateness at start of stage not exceeding 30 minutes||
EQUAL TO LATENESS
|Lateness of more than 30 minutes at departure of stage||
|Exceeding maximum allowed time||
|Out of time CP||
|Not checking in at check point||
3rd / X
1st/ 1 H
|Out of time departure check point (water distribution point)||
|Failure to follow the markings , non-respect of starting procedure||
3 H MINIMUM
|Unjustified use of distress beacon||
|Headlamp turned off, lack of luminous signal sticks, number bibs not visible||
|Abandon of team member for team of 3+ members||
|Abandon of team member leaving team short (less than 3)||
|Doping / use of transportation||
3 H MINIMUM
|Receiving of extra water||
3rd / X
1st/ 30 MINUTES
|Vital medical assistance||
2nd / X
1st / 2 H
|Wandering far off course||
|Water and environment||
3rd / X
1st / 30 MINUTES
|Failure to respect tents reserved by AOI||
1st / 30 MINUTES
|Loss of distress beacon||
|Inappropriate or harmful behaviour||
2nd / X
1st / 1 H
ATLANTIDE ORGANISATION Internationale reserves all exclusive rights for photo coverage of the 33rd MARATHON DES SABLES. Participants must agree that ATLANTIDE ORGANISATION Internationale may have exclusive use of their identity and individual or collective pictures for anything related directly or indirectly to their participation in the MARATHON DES SABLES. Any still camera, video or movie coverage done during the MARATHON DES SABLES cannot be used by participants, their entourage or trainers for any use other than personal, unless by prior authorisation or accreditation from ATLANTIDE ORGANISATION Internationale. As a result, any book or film (short, feature) project must obtain ATLANTIDE ORGANISATION Internationale’s prior authorisation. Email: email@example.com
|GENERAL RANKING :|
|1st prize :
2nd prize :
3rd prize :
4th to 10th prize :
|Trophy / € 5000
Trophy / € 3000
Trophy / € 1500
Trophy, credit of € 500 for the next enrolment.
|1st team :
2nd team :
3rd team :
|Trophy / € 4000
Trophy / € 3000
Trophy / € 2000
|1st woman :
2nd woman :
3rd woman :
|Trophy / € 5000
Trophy / € 3000
Trophy / € 1500
|Men’s Veteran ranking|
|1st veteran M1 :
1st veteran M2 :
1st veteran M3 :
1st veteran M4 :
|Trophy / € 1000*
Trophy / € 500*
|Women’s Veteran ranking|
|1st veteran W1 :
1st veteran W2 :
1st veteran W3 :
1st veteran W4 :
|Trophy / € 1000*
Trophy/ € 500*
|Daily race challenge: male and female categories : a credit of 400 euro per stage for the next enrolment in MARATHON DES SABLES. These reductions can be accumulated to a maximum of one complete entry fee.
*May not be added to prize-money won in individual and women’s rankings.